간추출물 ( Liver Extract )


간추출물은 그동안 미국에서 악성빈혈, 만성피로 또는 각종 바이러스 성 간염환자, 기타 간질환 환자에게 건강식품으로 상품화되어 판매되어 왔습니다. 간 추출물은 보통 돼지, 소의 간에서 지방과 콜레스테롤 등을 제거한 후 살균과정을 거쳐 냉동분말이나 농축액체 형태로 제품화되었습니다. 간 추출물은 많은 임상실험으로 그 효과 효능이 확인되었습니다. 특히 바이러스 성 간염, 또는 지방간 등 간 질환에 간 기능개선에 좋은 효과를 발휘하는 것으로 알려져 있습니다.

Background

Liver extract and desiccated (dried) liver have been marketed as iron supplements for over a century. The extract is processed cow or pig liver that may either be a freeze-dried brownish powder or a concentrated liquid that has had most of the fat and cholesterol removed.

Preliminary clinical studies indicate that liver extract may be helpful in treating hepatic (liver) dysfunction. In addition, liver extract seems to work synergistically with interferon in treating hepatitis C and other viral infections. More research is needed in these areas.

Laboratory studies indicate that liver extract may have some effects that could be useful in treating certain forms of cancer, such as the ability to direct migration of metastasizing cells and the inhibition of DNA, RNA, and protein formation. More research is needed in these areas to quantify liver extract's properties.

Some concern has been raised about the safety of liver extract, as it is made of animal liver, which may be infected with parasites, bacteria, or prion diseases. Although there are currently no available reports of diseases such as bovine spongiform encephalitis (BSE, or "mad cow disease") being transmitted by liver extract, the U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) still cautions against the use of any animal organ extract. It is not clear how the processing of liver extract affects the transmission of these organisms.

EvidenceTable

These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider.

Pernicious anemia (Grade: A)
Ingestion of liver increases red blood cell counts, and liver extract (by mouth or by injection) has the same effect. Both liver and liver extract have high vitamin B12 content. Today, pernicious anemia is typically treated with vitamin B12 injections.

Chronic fatigue syndrome (Grade: C)
An injectable solution of bovine liver extract containing folic acid and cyanocobalamin has been an advocated treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome. Preliminary study indicates that patients with chronic fatigue syndrome positively reacted to intramuscular bovine liver extract. Additional study is needed to make a firm recommendation.

Chronic hepatitis (hepatitis C) (Grade: C)
Hepatitis impairs liver function; liver extract has shown liver stimulatory and protective effects. The combination of liver extract and interferon may increase patients' response to interferon therapy alone. However, additional study is needed.

Hepatic disorders (Grade: C)
Liver extract seems to stimulate liver function. In two studies, liver extract increased the liver function of patients with impaired liver function. More research is needed to compare liver extract to other hepatostimulatory treatments.

Surgical uses (urological operation adjunct) (Grade: C)
Liver extract may help maintain liver function during urological surgery. More research is needed to define the importance of this normalization of liver function.

Synonyms

Alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes, aqueous liver, bovine liver extract, crude liver extract, cyanocobalamin, hydrolyzed liver extract, hydroxocobalamin, iron, LEx, liquid liver extract, liver, liver concentrate, liver extract lysate, liver factors, liver fractions, liver glandular products, liver hydrolysate, liver substance, purified liver extract, raw liver, Solcohepsyl?, Solcohepsyl? extralysate, subcellular liver fractions, vitamin B12.

Note: Although liver extract contains many constituents, such as vitamin B12, this monograph focuses on liver extract research.

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